RTD Submits ‘Zero Fare for Better Air’ Final Report

Written by Carolina Worrell, Senior Editor
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The Regional Transportation District (RTD) on Nov. 30 announced that it has submitted a final report to the Colorado Energy Office detailing the outcomes of its inaugural Zero Fare for Better Air (ZFBA) period, which took place this past August, as a requirement of the Ozone Season Free Transit Grant Program created in the Colorado Senate Bill 22-180.

During RTD’s inaugural period of ZFBA, an initiative “designed to reduce ground-level ozone by increasing the use of public transit across the state,” transit ridership increased systemwide, but catalysts for these results are unclear, according to the report. Additionally, the report states that “the agency was able to support the ridership to increase without incurring significant costs related to increased service demand; the program did not yield significant operating impacts, nor did it lead to a major increase in quality of life or crime incidents on RTD services; and the impacts of the initiative on air quality are difficult to quantify, as there was no baseline provided.”

According to RTD, the Ozone Season Free Transit Grant Program, provides funding to recover up to 80% of the lose fare revenue and other costs incurred by RTD if fares are offered at no cost to customers for at least 30 days during ozone season in 2022 and 2023. RTD, the agency says, provided zero-fare service on all transit modes—bus, rail, paratransit and microtransit—during August—Colorado’s highest ozone month. The total cost to RTD associated with the initiative during that month was approximately $10.3 million, the agency added.

The final report (downloadable below) assess the impact of the ZFBA program on ridership, revenue and costs, operations and customers; evaluates operational impacts that include overcrowding, on-time performance and impact on RTD’s frontline employees; and includes recommendations for RTD staff should the initiative be continue next year.

RTD General Manager and CEO Debra A. Johnson affirmed the agency’s commitment to environmental stewardship when she announced the initiative in June, the agency said. This week, Johnson noted that “the agency’s overall experience was positive, with customers saying they appreciated the zero-fare period and there being minimal disruptions to day-to-day operations.” Johnson called the initiative “an example of working with the General Assembly and administration to implement a successful partnership,” and cautioned that “drawing conclusions on the success of a one-month pilot is challenging, as transit trends and date are influenced by seasonal factors, such as vacations and the resumption of the school year, in addition to persisting pandemic impacts and large scheduled events.”

“The data that were gathered provide a snapshot into various potential and experienced impacts across the agency’s services, all of which will help RTD garner a better understanding of customer behavior and how to approach future zero fare periods that extend beyond a day or two,” Johnson said, referencing the agency’s most recent election-related zero fare days this fall. “The purpose of public transit lies in the value it provides, and RTD’s participation in this initiative enabled customers to experience the value of our services, whether their travel habits changed for a day, a month or the whole of the pandemic.”

Highlights from the report are noted within the following categories:

Ridership Impacts

  • “Overall ridership increased by 22% from July 2022 to August 2022, and 36% from August 2021.
  • Average weekday daily ridership increased 19.9% in August compared with July and increased 32.4% as compared with August 2021.
  • “RTD’s buses saw the largest increase, with a 23.4% increase over July and a 33.3% increase over August 2021.
  • “Light rail and commuter rail ridership increases were more modest from July 2022 to August 2022, at 15.1% and 12.1%, respectively.
  • “Much of RTD’s ridership growth observed in August 2022 was sustained into September 2022, even with the resumption of fare collection.
  • “Ridership increased during the ZFBA period across all RTD’s complementary paratransit services, including Access-a-Ride, Access-a-Cab and the Uber-based Access-on-Demand service.”

Revenue and Cost Impacts

  • “The single largest financial impact associated with ZFBA was forgone fare revenue, in the amount of $9,267,964 (based upon revenue forecasts and historical ridership data).
  • “While staff anticipated the need for additional security and cleaning services in response to increased demand as a result of ZFBA, no such costs were incurred, largely due to workforce constraints.”

On-Time Performance

  • “There was no significant impact on bus on-time performance during the ZFBA period.”

Operator Conflicts, Crime Reports

  • “Security incidents–which include interactions with ill, impaired or disorderly customers, or assaults on customers or operators–did not increase significantly during the ZFBA period.
  • “Security incidents declined 17% year over year, from 47 in August 2021 to 39 in August 2022; only two more incidents occurred in August 2022 than in July 2022.
  • “Crime report data show no major increase in drug-related or other quality-of-life complaints during the ZFBA period.”

System Cleanliness

  • “While RTD incurred no additional costs related to cleaning vehicles during ZFBA, Service and Cleaning staff noted that, on average, more vehicles required cleaning and more time was needed to service the vehicles each evening during the ZFBA period.
  • “RTD did not receive a significant increase in the number of customer complaints related to cleanliness of transit vehicles between the months of July and August 2022, although customers registered a slightly higher number of complaints regarding bus stop and shelter cleanliness (32 in July 2022, 38 in August 2022).
  • “There was no change in the number of complaints about the cleanliness of vehicles or stations.”

Customer Survey Findings

  • “During August 2022, 76% of respondents indicated that they used rail services, and 60% indicated that they used bus services.
  • “While survey respondents indicated they were more likely to use rail services, August 2022 ridership data showed that 65% of boardings occurred on bus and 35% of boardings occurred on rail.
  • “91% of respondents indicated that they had used RTD services before August 2022.
  • “55% of respondents indicated that they increased their use of RTD services over the course of August 2022.
  • “60% of respondents indicated that cost savings was a motivating factor in their use of RTD services during the ZFBA period; 58% of respondents said that environmental benefits were a motivating factor.
  • “77% of respondents indicated that they were either satisfied or very satisfied with the RTD services they used during the ZFBA period.
  • “54% of respondents indicated that their level of satisfaction with RTD services increased as a result of ZFBA.
  • “72% of respondents indicated that they were likely or very likely to continue using RTD services in the future, assuming that fares return to their previous levels.”


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