“Every now and then, failures of different types of structures are reported in the news,” say Avanish Prasad and Purnima Prasad. “Some of these failures are a result of static and dynamic loading being applied to structures beyond their life cycle. It is imperative that engineers understand the behavior of structures under different types of static and dynamic loading, and analyze a structure undergoing underpinning operations to avoid failures.”
Author: Avinash and Purnima Prasad
“Infrastructure,” say Avinash Prasad and Indira Prasad, “can be defined as the set of structural elements that supports our day-to-day lives and influences the direction of humanity. Most of our existing infrastructure (including transportation) is not sustainable and resilient. It is important to understand the significance of sustainable and resilient critical infrastructure systems—an emerging thought in an evolving era where natural and man-made assets are being depleted to provide a sustainable and high quality of life. Sustainable infrastructure refers to the designing, building, and operation of structural elements in ways that do not diminish the social, economic, and ecological processes required to maintain human equity, diversity and the functionality of natural systems.”
Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the profession by using their knowledge and skills for the enhancement of human welfare, by being honest and impartial, by serving with fidelity to public, their employers and clients, by striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession, and by supporting the professional and technical societies of their disciplines.
Tunnels in general represent a significant financial investment with challenging design, construction, and operational issues. Tunnels that are not adequately planned, designed, and constructed usually require more costly and extensive repairs. Tunnel Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is a data-driven tool that provides a detailed account of the total costs of the project over its expected life.